The Marquisate of the Oaxaca Valley was the land granted by the Crown on 6 July 1529 to Hernán Cortés in recognition of his services. This three codices were drafted by indigenous scribes (tlacuilos) using their own writing system and written on agave (maguey) paper. They are accompanied by documents drafted by the descendants of Hernán Cortés. They constitute indigenous testimony after the Conquest and reflection of pre-Hispanic documents. The codices have allowed the testimony of the indigenous culture to be preserved, as most of the pre-Hispanic originals were destroyed.